The PM saw off a bid to remove her government from power by 325 to 306 votes, the day after her plan for leaving the EU was rejected.
Afterwards, Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn refused to join talks unless the threat of a no-deal exit was ruled out.
The PM said she wanted to approach discussions in a “constructive spirit”.
Speaking outside Downing Street after talks on Wednesday night with the Lib Dems, SNP and Plaid Cymru, Mrs May called on MPs to “put self-interest aside”.
She must present a new plan for EU withdrawal to Parliament by 21 January.
“It will not be an easy task, but MPs know they have a duty to act in the national interest, reach a consensus and get this done,” she said.